Generally, Kickstarter will automatically refund your pledge towards a particular project if that project does not meet its funding goal by its designated deadline. To make this easier, Kickstarter will simply not charge your credit card until the project's funding deadline has passed, and only if the project met its funding goal.
Also, although it's discouraged, you can get a refund by cancelling your pledge to a project before it reaches its funding deadline. To do so, go to the project's information page, and click Manage beside your pledge amount. On the next page, scroll to the bottom of the screen and click Cancel Pledge.
If a project on Kickstarter that you backed reaches its fundraising deadline having met or exceeded its fundraising goal, all backers will have their credit cards charged for their pledge amounts. At this point, you cannot get a refund for your pledge, even if you are not completely satisfied with the way that the project turns out. (It's the creator's project, after all, not yours.)
The partial exception to this is if the project's creator is unable to give you a reward for your pledge (if you were promised one), or is unable to fully complete the project. In these situations, Kickstarter's terms of service (particularly section 4) obligate the project creator to find a way to bring their project to a satisfactory conclusion with regards to their backers.
While this may include issuing refunds to backers (especially if they did not receive their promised rewards), Kickstarter has no technical or legal authority to force a creator to refund backers' money. However, if you wish, you may pursue individual legal action against a creator.
If you need to refund your project's backers because you foresee yourself unable to fulfill their rewards or the project's completion, start by going to your project's information page. Under the "Creator Tools" menu on the left, click Backer Report. Click on the name of the backer whom you wish to refund, and then click Issue a Refund. Enter your credit card information into the form provided, and type in the amount that you wish to refund them for.
That's a bit of information about how refunds work on Kickstarter!
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